Pink Fire Pointer 2011

Holiday Season

Long weekend is a long-awaited moment a lot of people to eliminate the tired routines leave for a moment to re-create the body and mind become fresh. No wonder many people are taking ration coupled with the long holiday sabbatical in order to enjoy a longer holiday.

The tradition of the people of Indonesia for homecoming (returning home) is ingrained throughout the region. not only Javanese people who do it, but almost all areas even for people who wander out Indonesai negeripun do. Given the current density at each ahead of the holiday homecoming danjang, the travelers is difficult to get tickets according to what he wanted. Although no price has doubled. ticket agents and travel companies are considered as the party raise the price. Tiketpun brokers do not miss these opportunities to reap the benefits.

Actually the government has issued regulations regarding the upper limit and lower limit for airfare, bus or other transportation back and forth. But the fact remains there is an increase in field tickets that go beyond the specified limits. For airline companies usually abide by the rules that have been set by the government, but often there are several elements which cooperate with ticket scalpers ticket that causes a rare and people are forced to buy through brokers that cost far more expensive than listed on the ticket.

ordercustompaper made a real revolution in the industry. TIP: To Which Will Vacation
Based on my experience and also my friend's friends, there are a few tips that might be useful for you all:
1. Plan your holiday from the far-distant day. eg for a plane ticket Eid, a year before D-day tickets usually can already be booked. Be careful in determining the date of departure if you will be buying tickets promo, promo tickets because usually it will be difficult if you have to do flight schedule changes. executive for train tickets and tickets are already sold 40 business days prior to departure and economic train one week before the day of departure.
2. Prepare your luggage to be brought. Bring items that you really need it. the more goods you bring you will be more troublesome and also passengers. Separate place your personal items in places easily accessible. such drugs should not be included into the trunk, because if you suddenly need it will be hard to pick it up.
3. Bring cash as needed. bring the money in the form of an ATM card or other shopping cards are safer than carrying cash in large numbers.
4. Avoid striking appearance and Nudity. Wearing sexy clothing, flashy jewelry that will invite crime.
5. If not get a ticket, your trip should be postponed. Do not buy tickets at brokers or in a place that is not official if it is not very forced at all.

Civet coffee (Luwwak Coffee) mint flavors

What do you think if you hear about Givet Coffee or Luwak coffee? Will you be my think about coffee with special coffee taste. Luwak coffee verry famous in the word because of the taste. The price of Civet Coffee is verry expensive, but the price is worth a taste. So what do you think if you hear about Civet Coffee with min flavors?

As at the posting in the forum ( that in West Lampung is developing Luwak coffee mint flavors. With the development of civet coffee variant is expected to increase the attractiveness of West Lampung as a tourist destination in the province of Lampung.

Luwak coffee with mint flavour is a new variant of coffee flavor, Luwak coffee ment flavour-making ideas into a strategic move to boost sales of these products luwak coffee. Variations Luwak coffee products in West Lampung will impact on employers' economic improvement, other than that of the new product will add to the diversity of processed coffee products. ( Gunawan (38), luwak coffee entrepreneur from Way, Kecamatan Balik bukit, Lampung Barat, in Liwa

West Lampung is the largest coffee producing areas in Lampung Province. For half of the coffee region were developed as the main livelihood of local masyarat.

Kopi Luwak become one of the leading products in the district of West Lampung. Coffee product called West Lampungincreasingly recognized in foreign countries. Luwak coffee production is still limited mint flavor. Employers only meet consumer demand Based on the orders. Mint Luwak coffee prices reached Rp900.000/Kg.

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Spices from the Maluku

Maluku known as the Thousand Island area and has a socio-cultural diversity and abundant natural wealth. The Dutch called it 'the three golden from the east' of Ternate, Banda and Ambon. Before the arrival of the Dutch, Portuguese writer and physician, Tome Pirez wrote the book 'Summa Oriental' who have engraved on Ternate, Ambon and Banda as 'the spices island '

The main commodities Maluku archipelago in terms of spices are cloves and nutmeg. Both commodities are now a symbol of the province of Maluku. Maluku Province is located in eastern Indonesia with the capital Ambon. fertile soil make the province of Maluku has abundant natural resources. not only well-known spice since antiquity, the sea was also already a commodity exports to several countries such as Japan and Thaialand.
After Splitting Provinis embarrassment, it gives birth to the northern province of Maluku. After the birth of North Maluku province is expected to natural resource management more leverage so as to increase the production of spices in north Maluku. until recently head of production at the new North Maluku reach 5,000 tons / year. nutmeg plantation area of ​​1,000 ha is one of the efforts of local governments to increase the production of nutmeg. with programs that support the development of production of spices and marine comodity  in the next few years Maluku will get rich with the spices and the sea.

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Mudik Time

Mudik or Homecoming is a tradition of Indonesian society during Idul Fitri arrived. The settled foreigner have prepared since long time back and forth time. for travelers that use train, They can buy the ticket 40 days before the day of homecoming time. for the travelers that use plane, They can bay the ticket about six months earlier.
Mudik usually do urbanites in cities to their rural homelands. Large cities become deserted while in the township became crowded during homecoming. Migrants from various regions gathered in their hometown. The gathering of the community is always accompanied by economic activity in the area. rural economy began to rise when going home arrived.

In addition to improving economic activity, the moment of going home can also be used as a means of promotion for rural communities. Many products - products that have a rural high economic value, but has been less developed due to lack of capital and marketing are not systematic. with the gathering of urban society from the urban, is expected to be intersting their interest to invest in goods from the countryside.

Urban communities are considered to have the ability to process the products produced in rural areas to be processed materials that have high economic value. Creative ideas and capital are expected to increase in the rural economy.

Selamat menjalankan Ibadah Shoum!
Selamat Mudik
Selamat Hari Raya Idul Fitri

The Effect of Infrastructure (Transport) to The Economic Growth

Translated from : with Googletranslate

The development of infrastructure to economic development has a close relationship and interdependence with each other. repair and improvement of infrastructure in general will be able to increase the mobility of people, the creation of drop shipping the goods, the presence of the transport of goods with higher speeds, and improved quality of services such transportation.

At this crucial infrastructure problems to be addressed on the agenda of local government, because the infrastructure is a major determinant of the sustainability of development activities, such as to achieve economic development targets both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the short-term infrastructure development will create jobs in the construction sector medium and long term will support increased efficiency and productivity related economic sectors. So that infrastructure development can be considered as a strategy to encourage economic growth, poverty reduction, improved quality of life, increased mobility of goods and services, and can reduce the cost of domestic and foreign investors (Marsuki, 2007).
The relationship of infrastructure to economic growth is directly infrastructure provides benefits to households (household) and also much enjoyed by the company which led to economic growth and ultimately provide welfare Prud'homme (in Briceno et al, 2004).

The linkage between the infrastructure (transport sector) with partumbuhan economic context of government spending (Government spending) transport sector in accordance with the Theory Keyles (in Gardner Ackley, 1961) states that the activities of government seeping into all areas of assuming a closed economy, where Y is economic growth, C is consumption, G is the volume of government spending, and I is investment. 

Systematically have the identity as follows: Research on the effects of public investment in infrastructure (in this case the transport and communications) on the growth made by Easterly and Rebelo in 1993. Using assessment as a helper variable to avoid linking the two endogenous variables and the possibility of reciprocal causal relationships. With the pool method of regression, found that public investment in infrastructure has always been a positive relationship with relatively high coefficients of between 0.59 to 0.66 on the growth.
In encouraging the development of infrastructure, the government as a major player in the infrastructure sector should maintain the sustainability of development investments in infrastructure and prioritize infrastructure development plans, so the infrastructure can be improved both in quantity and quality. Infrastructure development should involve the private sector and communities to achieve sustainable development. There must be a right combination between large and small scale infrastructure to achieve the target income distribution and poverty reduction. For that we need a more integrated approach in infrastructure development from planning to service to the community, to ensure synergy across sectors, regions and territories. In more detail the provision of infrastructure to economic development are: (Basri, 2002).
1. Accelerate and provide the necessary goods.
2. Availability of infrastructure will enable the availability of goods for more people with a cheaper cost.
3. A good infrastructure can facilitate the transport which in turn stimulates the stabilization and reduce the price disparity among regions.
4. Infrastructure that facilitate the transport services led to the production areas can be transported and sold into the market. 

Macroeconomic Assumptions Revised 2011

The economy is expected to grow about 6.5% in the State Budget Changes (APBN-P). The number is higher than the 2011 state budget assumption of 6.4%. This was conveyed by Deputy Finance Minister Anny Ratnawati, while Working Meeting (Meeting) with the Commission XI of the House of Representatives (DPR) at the Parliament House Senayan, Jakarta on Wednesday (06/07).

In line with the improving global economy and domestic, there is a change in the estimated sources of growth in GDP (Gross Domestic Product). "Sources of GDP growth in 2011 came from public consumption by 4.9%, 5.1% government consumption, PMTB (Gross Fixed Capital Formation) 9.5%, 14.1% of exports and imports 17.3%," explains Wamenkeu. Estimated GDP growth in 2011 will be the highest growth since the crisis of 1997/1998.

According Wamenkeu, is expected to shift the composition of the sources of growth. Rising oil prices in 2011 is estimated to boost the mining sector. While the estimated normal weather conditions and a variety of policies to increase agricultural productivity, is expected to enhance the growth of the agricultural sector.

Meanwhile, the inflation rate in 2011 is expected to be in the range of 6%, higher than the budget assumption for 2011 of 5.3%. The rate of annual inflation in June 2011 reached 5.54% (year on year), or higher than the same period in 2010 amounted to 5.05%. This occurs along with the increase in world commodity prices and continued high global demand.

NES 3-month interest rate will be the reference calculation of debt payments to replace SBI 3 months. Wamenkeu conveyed, during the first six months of 2011, NES 3-month interest rates fluctuate. "At the last auction, on June 21, 2011, interest rates SPN 3 months amounted to 5.44%," he said.

Problem strengthening of the rupiah, Wamenkeu argues, the average value of the rupiah in 2011 estimated at $ Rp8.800/US level. Reinforcement is influenced by several things. First, the strong capital inflows into the domestic market. Then, the increase in direct investment is encouraged by the improving investment climate and macroeconomic stability. Finally, the positive sentiment from the sovereign credit rating that will reach investment grade.

For the price of oil, the Government set a U.S. $ 95/barel in APBN-P 2011. "The average ICP (Indonesia Crude Price) January to June 2011 amounted to U.S. $ 111.0 / barrel, higher than the budget assumption of U.S. $ 80.0 / barrel," said Wamenkeu. He added, the average oil lifting the period December 2010 to May 2011 reached 888 thousand barrels per day (bpd), below the budget target in 2011.

Assumptions 2011
GDB (Trillion Rp)
Inflation (%)
Exchange Rate ($/Rp)
SBI 3 bln (%)
Oil Price (US$/brl)
Oil Lifting (Thousand.brl/day)
Coal Prod. (Million  tons)

GasLifting (MMSCFD)

APBN 2011 (In Trillion)
Gov. Revenue
Tax Revenue
Non Tax Revenue
Cent. Gov. Expenditure
Regional Expenditure


13th salary (Gaji ke-13) paid by Governments to the civil servants (PNS)

The government has prepared to disburse 13th salery this Jul. Policy to give 13th salery to civil servants since the government started Abdul Rahwan Wahin (Gusdur). Many pik that welcomes this policy as it is considered very effective to help the staff of the government to improve their welfare.

13th salery awarded in July or early to know the new school. So it is very helpful for civil servants to send their children to new school. This was confirmed by the Minister of Finance.


Minister of Finance Agus D.W. Martowardojo affirmed that 13th salary paid by Governments to the civil servants (PNS) is a mandate of Law. It was submitted by the Minister of Finance when he was met after the plenary meeting with House of Representatives (DPR) in Parliament House Senayan, Jakarta, Tuesday (05/07).

Minister said, the 13th salary payment is a mandate of Law, so it is Governments’ obligation to conduct it. “Because of Law, we have to prepare the 13th salary,” he said.

Besides that, for smooth implementation, central governments remind local governments to always maintain their budget health, including in the case of 13th salary payment. “So, regions have to maintain their budget health. That there is region that is objected or imposed, it is a consequence that they have to prepare because of 13th salary payment,” he said. 

Minister explained, the regulation regarding 13th salary payment has been finished to discuss. This regulation has been finalized and ready to run on this July. “We are done and it has run this month.


13th salery given for one month salary. If this is converted to a salary increase, then the same with a salary increase of 1 / 12 or by 8.43%. But if the government giveit in  the form of a salary increase of 8:34% then this will cause price increase or inflation which has been used to accompany the increase in salaries of civil servants.

13th salary (Salary to-13) must be paid Earlier

In the month of June is usually the parents are busy looking at schools for their children. At times like that's supposed salery 13th salary is provided at the beginning of June so pns already have the money when looking for schools for their children.

History of coffee

The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the thirteenth century. It has been believed that Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were the first to discover and recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant.The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 AD and is probably apocryphal.From Ethiopia, coffee was said to have spread to Egypt and Yemen. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.


The word "coffee" entered English in 1598 via Dutch koffie. This word was created via Turkish kahve, the Turkish pronunciation Arabic qahwa, a truncation of qahhwat al-bun or wine of the bean. One possible origin of the name is the Kingdom of Kaffa in Ethiopia, where the coffee plant originated; its name there is bunn or bunna.

First uses

There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Yemenite Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili. When traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality, and, upon trying the berries that the birds had been eating, experienced the same vitality. Another story involves a goat-herd, Kaldi, who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself. His exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a Muslim holy man in a nearby monastery. But the holy man disapproved of their use and threw them into the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed and the holy men came. The roasted beans were quickly raked from the embers, ground up, and dissolved in hot water, yielding the world's first cup of coffee. The Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo tribe, were the first to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant.Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea arabica varieties, found to be of low diversity but which retained some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, and closely-related diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica; however, no direct evidence has ever been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant, or known about it there earlier than the seventeenth century.

Arab world and spread to Europe

The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.From Mocha, coffee spread to Egypt and North Africa,and by the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.


Syrian Bedouin from a beehive village in Aleppo, Syria, sipping the traditional murra (bitter) coffee, 1930

The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant Philippe Sylvestre Dufour[8] is a reference to bunchum in the works of the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known as Rhazes in the West,[9] but more definite information on the preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee berries dates from several centuries later.

The most important of the early writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, who in 1587 compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa.[10] He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani (d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee (circa 1454).
“     He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour.[2]     ”

Coffee's usefulness in driving away sleep made it popular among Sufis, who used it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A translation[11] traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to Mecca and Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Istanbul.

Coffee beans were first exported from Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the bean.[12] The first coffeehouse opened in Istanbul in 1554.[13] Coffee was at first not well received. In 1511, it was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox imams at a theological court in Mecca[citation needed]. However, the popularity of the drink led these bans to be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Selim I, with Grand Mufti Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi issuing a celebrated fatwa allowing the consumption of coffee.[14] In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses containing coffee beans were sacked.

Similarly, coffee was banned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church some time before the 12th century.However, in the second half of the 19th century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking, and its consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to Richard Pankhurst, "this was largely due to [Emperor] Menilek, who himself drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the belief of the clergy that it was a Muslim drink."


Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692
Coffee was noted in Ottoman Aleppo by the German physician botanist Leonhard Rauwolf, the first European to mention it, as chaube, in 1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European travellers.
Coffee was also imported to Italy from the Ottoman Empire. The vibrant trade between Venice and the Muslims in North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice, charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was introduced to Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after controversy over whether it was acceptable for Catholics to consume was settled in its favor by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the drink. The first European coffee house (apart from those in the Ottoman Empire, mentioned above) was opened in Venice in 1645.


Largely through the efforts of the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company, coffee became available in England no later than the 16th century according to Leonhard Rauwolf's 1583 account. The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael's Alley in Cornhill. The proprietor was Pasqua Rosée, the servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment. The Grand Cafe in Oxford is alleged to be the first Coffee House in England, opened in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob. It is still open today, but has since become a popular Wine Bar. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England. Popularity of coffeehouses spread rapidly in Europe, and later, America.
The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, but does appear to have been common in Europe. In Germany women frequented them, but in England they were banned. Many believed coffee to have several medicinal properties in this period. For example, a 1661 tract entitled "A character of coffee and coffee-houses", written by one "M.P.", lists some of these perceived benefits:
'Tis extolled for drying up the Crudities of the Stomack, and for expelling Fumes out of the Head. Excellent Berry! which can cleanse the English-man's Stomak of Flegm, and expel Giddinesse out of his Head.
Not everyone was in favour of this new commodity, however. For example, the anonymous 1674 "Women's Petition Against Coffee" declared:
...the Excessive Use of that Newfangled, Abominable, Heathenish Liquor called COFFEE [...] has [...] Eunucht our Husbands, and Crippled our more kind Gallants, that they are become as Impotent, as Age


Antoine Galland (1646–1715) in his aforementioned translation described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate: "We are indebted to these great [Arab] physicians for introducing coffee to the modern world through their writings, as well as sugar, tea, and chocolate." Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix, the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot, who had travelled through the East. On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix. However, the major spread of the popularity of this beverage in Paris was soon to come. In 1669, Soleiman Agha, Ambassador from Sultan Mehmed IV, arrived in Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of coffee beans. Not only did they provide their French and European guests with coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the royal court. Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians.

Melange in Vienna


The real first coffeehouse in Austria opened in Vienna in 1683 after the Battle of Vienna, by using supplies from the spoils obtained after defeating the Turks. The officer who received the coffee beans, Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding sugar and milk to the coffee. Until recently, this was celebrated in Viennese coffeehouses by hanging a picture of Kulczycki in the window. Melange is the typical Viennese coffee, which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water.


The race among Europeans to make off with some live coffee trees or beans was eventually won by the Dutch in the late 17th century, when they allied with the natives of Kerala against the Portuguese and brought some live plants back from Malabar to Holland, where they were grown in greenhouses. The Dutch began growing coffee at their forts in Malabar, India, and in 1699 took some to Batavia in Java, in what is now Indonesia.
Within a few years the Dutch colonies (Java in Asia, Surinam in Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe.


The first record of coffee growing in India is following the introduction of coffee beans from Yemen by Baba Budan to the hills of Chikmagalur in 1670. Since then coffee plantations have become established in the region, extending south to Kodagu.


Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to Martinique in the Caribbean circa 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later there were 18,680 coffee trees in Martinique enabling the spread of coffee cultivation to Haiti, Mexico and other islands of the Caribbean. The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee. The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African slave laborers. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered there.
Coffee also found its way to the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean known as the Isle of Bourbon. The plant produced smaller beans and was deemed a different variety of Arabica known as var. Bourbon. The Santos coffee of Brazil and the Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the progeny of that Bourbon tree. Circa 1727, the King of Portugal sent Francisco de Mello Palheta to French Guinea to obtain coffee seeds to become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty obtaining these seeds yet he captivated the French Governor's wife and she in turn, sent him enough seeds and shoots which would commence the coffee industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from Brazil was introduced into Kenya and Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey.
Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822.After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.
Cultivation was taken up by many countries in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous Indian people. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants. The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.
In the 1930s Brazil took of as major producer of coffee leaving behind their early caffeinate yerba mate industry, that then Argentina took over.


The first step in Europeans' wresting the means of production was effected by Nicolaes Witsen, the enterprising burgomaster of Amsterdam and member of the governing board of the Dutch East India Company who urged Joan van Hoorn, the Dutch governor at Batavia that some coffee plants be obtained at the export port of Mocha in Yemen, the source of Europe's supply, and established in the Dutch East Indies;[the project of raising many plants from the seeds of the first shipment met with such success that the Dutch East India Company was able to supply Europe's demand with "Java coffee" by 1719. Encouraged by their success, they soon had coffee plantations in Ceylon, Sumatra and other Sunda islands. Coffee trees were soon grown under glass at the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden, whence slips were generously extended to other botanical gardens. Dutch representatives at the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Utrecht presented their French counterparts with a coffee plant, which was grown on at the Jardin du Roi, predecessor of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris.
The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain Gabriel des Clieux, who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist Antoine de Jussieu, who was loath to disfigure the king's coffee tree. Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult voyage, shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them from a Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the Batavian trade. Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the West Indies, and established them in Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue in addition to Martinique, where a blight had struck the cacao plantations, which were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of three years, is attributed to France through its colonization of many parts of the continent starting with the Martinique and the colonies of the West Indies where the first French coffee plantations were founded.
The first coffee plantation in Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col. Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the germ plasm originally taken from Yemen to Batavia, from French Guiana. By the 1800s, Brazil's harvests would turn coffee from an elite indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most other countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied heavily on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the plantations until the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of coffee in 17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the habit of tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).
For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil was the biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade. However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities to other nations, such as Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Vietnam, now second only to Brazil as the major coffee producer in the world. Large-scale production in Vietnam began following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995. Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta.
Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century, and much of that not from the south of the country but from the environs of Harar in the northeast. The Kingdom of Kaffa, home of the plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in 1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela, and greatly increased afterwards: 100,000 kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in 1927-8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port.Coffee plantations were also developed in Arsi Province at the same time, and were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway. While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the Railway, this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed exports of "Harari" coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in 1936.
Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export, but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres (2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South Wales and Cooktown. Today there are several producers of Arabica coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented in 1981.

Coffee and slavery

According to Marcondes, in the reputable scholarly article entitled Small and Medium Slaveholdings in the Coffee Economy of the Vale do Paraíba, 27.9% of the population is enslaved. Most of the areas in Vale do Paraíba that have larger amounts of slavery are the communities in which coffee is grown. Marcondes found in some areas that coffee holders held about 10 slaves each to grow, and this depended on the size of the plantation. Marcondes used “Almanak da província de São Paulo para 1873” to cross-examine the information she had found through her own research about slave holding. The Almanak contains a list of slavery and owners listed from the year 1873. Primarily, however, Marcondes surveyed the slave classification accounts of the areas under dispute, which contain the register number and name of the slave. Shockingly, throughout the areas there are many differentiations, in numbers of slaves and size of plantations, however, Marcondes refutes that the slavery did not change throughout the 1900s. Conclusively, it ends with the statement that slaveholdings increased, with the increased popularity of coffee and the expansion of coffee production. 
Singleton, an anthropologic scholar from Syracuse University, reports that Cuba had over 1 million slaves imported to them from Africa in order to work their crops. Although the production and selling of sugar in the country began the slave holding, the presence of coffee played an equally important role in establishing slavery in Cuba. When coffee reached Cuba, farmers welcomed it. This is because Coffee required less land to grow and lacked the need for machinery to process it. The slaveholding that went on during this time was managed by a prison-like atmosphere creating much unrest and inevitable rebellions against the wealth that enslaved them. Coffee production in Cuba was short-lived due to competition with Brazilian coffee, but the slave holding with sugar was as equally prominent with coffee’s presence in Cuba, (however short-lived it may have been).
Slomkowski argues in "Chocolate’s Dark Side" that coffee and cocoa are both grown, for the most part, in developing worlds. Produced from the Cacao tree, coffee beans need a relatively hot climate to flourish, making the Central and South America’s a tremendous supplier of all things cocoa. Though, Slomkowski points out that around 70% of the crop is actually grown in Africa, under very dark circumstances. In fact the entire history of coffee has been dark. Besides the switch to growing coffee in the rainforest continuing the plight of deforestation, child labor continues to work along the Ivory Coast, performing egregrious acts unsuitable for children, and earning next to nothing in a year’s time. This corruption is due to the lack of interruption from corporations, and remains a problem to this day. 
In chapter 7 from "Coffee: A Dark History", slavery’s inconceivable roots in the production of coffee, come to light through Wild’s evocative writing and serious research. The world’s second most traded commodity, otherwise known as coffee, comes to us in the form of a trading tool, an economic bubble of wealth, and something that turned into a slave’s job to grow and handle. Early eighteenth century, coffee made its first premier unto the Caribbean’s fertile soil and naturally, flourished, upholding that just about anywhere could now grow coffee. Due to the fact that the slave labor already had it’s powerful grip on the Caribbean Islands, and because of the plantation fueled economy; coffee, its production and its sale became quickly established not only there, but also everywhere. Thus, as coffee spread through the hemisphere quickly, it raised the slavery-required labor along with it. As the coffee commodity increases, so does the need for the slaves to work the crop. Coffee becomes very rooted in the newly formed America, becoming a source of power and different beverage than their forefathers in England would have enjoyed. From this however, the slave trade, slave labor, and harsh conditions on plantations, continued to grow; now, so deeply rooted in coffee, the sale and production. But with the Continental System, instated to choke off the British and allow various countries to gain control of economies but prohibiting them from access to coffee. With this shut out, coffee prices increased but the want for this delicious beverage did not lessen. 

[edit] Time Line of Coffee

  • > 5 AD The coffee was discovered in Ethiopia.
  • 700-1000 Coffee was first known by the Arabs as an energy drink . The spread of coffee was started simultaneously with the spread of Islam.
  • 1000 Ibn Sina investigated the chemical substance of coffee.
  • 1400 The spread of coffee and coffee shops rapidly in the Arabian peninsula, especially Mecca and Medina.
  • Coffee was introduced in 1453 in Constantinople by the Turks (Ottoman Caliphate). Coffee shop which was first recorded there, named Kiva Han, which opened in 1475.
  • 1600 Pope Clement VIII, confirmed to consider that the 'coffee culture' is a heresy, 'foreign culture' that can threaten the (infidel) and therefore sinful for those who drink it. But then he allowed if the 'coffee' into the (alternative) from the food / beverages are kosher eaten by a Christian. In that year, the coffee was brought from Mekkah to India (Asia Minor)by a man named Baba Budan when pilgrims return from Mekkah .
  • 1616 was brought from Mocha Coffee (Yemen) to the Netherlands.
  • 1645 The first coffee shop opened in Venice, Italy.
  • 1650 The first coffee shop opened in Christian countries (Christendom) precisely in the Oxford.
  • 1658 Dutch opened the first garden in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
  • 1668 coffee shop 'Edward Lloyd's' opened in London. From this coffee shop and then Edward opened the most prominent insurance companies in the world of Lloyd's of London Insurance.
  • 1668 Coffee began to be known in North America.
  • 1669 The coffee shop was introduced in Paris by the Turkish ambassador to the king of Louis XIV.
  • 1670 London devoted to coffee. Coffee shop opened in every corner of London. Coffee was introduced in Germany. In Brazil, coffee cultivation began. Types of coffee grown is the Coffea Arabica Lind.
  • 1674 Women's Petition against coffee issued in London.
  • 1675 dish of tea (tea house) began to be introduced in the Netherlands. Previously there was just serving drinks beer / malt.
  • 1675 King Charles II closes all coffee shops in London.
  • 1679 in Marseilles, a chemist testified that French coffee is destructive and dangerous to human health.
  • 1679 The first coffee shop opened in Hamburg, Germany.
  • 1688 More than 800 local coffee shop opened in Soho (England). Especially by Christian refugees from the French Calvinists (Huguenots).
  • 1689 typical French Café first opened, named Café de Procope, although the atmosphere of crisis after the announcement of coffee harmful to health.
  • 1696 The first coffee shop called The King's Arms opened in New York.
  • A Dutch citizen named Zwaardecroon, brought some seeds from Mecca to Bogor, Indonesia. And, being the most important crops in the Dutch East Indies.
  • 1706 Java Coffee studied Dutch in Amsterdam.
  • 1714 Java Coffee researched, by Dutch introduced and planted in the Jardin des Plantes by King Louis XIV.
  • 1720 Florian stay open coffee shop in Florence.
  • 1723 Gabriel du Clieu bring coffee beans from France to Martinique.
  • 1727 Francisco de Ello brings coffee beans from France for planting in Brazil.
  • 1730 British planted coffee in Jamaica.
  • 1732 Johann Sebastian Bach composes "Coffee Cantata", in Leipzig. Kantata describes the spiritual journey as well as a parody of the fear of Germans against the rapid popularity of coffee in Germany (the German beer enthusiasts).
  • 1777 King of Germany (Prussia) announced a ban on criticism and coffee, and announced as the national drink German beer Kingdom.
  • 1790 British coffee shop is a typical beginning to disappear slowly replaced by a beer tavern (tavern).
  • 1802 Cafe as a word that shows the place was introduced in the UK (formerly coffee house). This word comes from the French word 'café' and almost seakar in Italian 'Caffe'. Café shows a place that is a main restaurant with a menu of coffee drinks.
  • 1809 Coffee was first imported from Brazil into the U.S. market in Salem, Massachusetts.
  • 1820 Substance Caffeine found in coffee drinks in unison by three different studies - and, of course, each researcher was working on their own - made by Runge, Robiquet, Pelletier and Caventou
  • 1822 prototype of an espresso coffee machine made in France.
  • 1839 The word 'Cafeteria' was introduced as the word hybrid (combined) from eksiko, Spain and England.
  • 1859 Michael Thonet's Vienna Café chair No.. 14 (bench particular coffee shop was first introduced as a 'bench suitable for use while sipping coffee. "
  • 1869 Coffee leaf rust (fungus coffee) was first discovered in Sri Lanka and coffee plants in Asia.
  • 1873 Coffee in bulk packaging was first introduced in America by John Arbukle.
  • 1882 The New York Coffee Exchange formed.
  • 1869 outbreak of a fungal disease across Asia that causes destruction of Coffea Arabica coffee manifold Lind, who was widely planted in Asia. Until this year, people started planting various kinds of coffee are numerous in the Congo region.
  • 1904 espresso machine made modern by Fernando Milly.
  • 1906 Brazil raises coffee prices after creating the price (exchange rate) fixed for the commodity coffee.
  • 1910 Germany makes decaf coffee (caffeine in coffee substance reduction to a minimum), Dan was introduced to America by the name Dekafa.
  • 1911 Coffee Traders in the U.S. to form the National Coffee Association.
  • 1915 Pyrex found. First used as a lamp lighting especially on the railroad as a heat-resistant lamp cover and weather or physical impact. Start introduced as a kitchen tool, as a substitute for glass. Coffee shop using a pyrex heat resistant glass.
  • 1920 coffee shop 'new' booming in America.
  • Vienna Café chair No. 1925. 14 were included in the exhibition L'esprit Nouveau in France by Le Corbusier. Until 1933 this bench model produced more than 50 million.
  • 1927 espresso coffee machines were first introduced in America. The first coffee shop wearing 'La Pavoni' in New York. Machine is specially designed by renowned Italian architect Gio Ponti.
  • 1928 Colombian Coffee Federation is formed.
  • 1930-1944 Coffee growers destroy 78 million bags of Brazilian coffee to stabilize prices.
  • 1938 Cremonesi: a piston pump that can spray hot water with high speed to brew coffee.
  • 1938 Nestle find instant coffee in Brazil, Nestle until now the largest producer of instant coffee in the world.
  • 1939-1945 U.S. forces bring instant coffee in the war and introduce it to the world.
  • 1942 People begin hoarding coffee due to wartime shortages. In England at this time coffee is rationed.
  • 1946 Gaggia Factory produces commercial cappuccino machine for the first time. The word cappuccino comes from the color of Capucin Coat.
  • 1948 Achille Gaggia invented the espresso coffee in bulk at Milan.
  • 1952 Gaggia machines imported into the UK. In this year's coffee shop after the second world war for the first time opened in London in July.
  • Espresso Bar 1953 spread all over Soho. The first time was on the road Mocha 29 Frith Street.
  • 1954 restricted the ownership of some commodities such as coffee ends with the end of the second world war transitional period.
  • Catherine Uttley 1957 there were 200 registered coffee bar in London. Starting a lot of coffee bars that use plastics ranging from kitchen equipment, dining, floor to furniture.
  • 1960 carrying coffee bar doubled from 1.000 to 2.000 across the UK, most in the London, about 500 pieces.
  • 1962 Peak of coffee consumption per capita in the United States, 3 cups per person per day.
  • 1962 International Agreement on trade in coffee is made, the intent is to control prices.
  • 1964 Coffee Bar dying in England, replaced by restaurants with a variety of dishes.
  • 1970 Mokha cynical café closed after complaints by American writer William S. Burrough.
  • 1971 Starbuck Outlet first opened in Seattle.
  • 1973 Fair Trade Coffee was first imported to Europe from Guatemala.
  • 1975 Brazil suffered because of failed harvests, world coffee prices soared.
  • 1989 International Coffee Agreement fails to stabilize prices. In the history of the coffee trade down to its lowest level.
  • 1990 Some coffee shops close due to the arrangement of space (redevelopment) in the UK. Introduced organic coffee that are excellent in the world coffee market.
  • 1998 Starbucks reach 2000 Outlets in the U.S. and 5,715 outlets worldwide. Starbucks positioned itself as a coffee shop with the largest network worldwide.
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